Professor Article

Forecasting the compressive and ultimate tensile strength of rocks from indentation hardness index by H. Kahraman*, M. FenerвЂ, and E. Kozman‡


The prediction of rock houses from roundabout testing methods is important, especially for preliminary inspections since roundabout tests are much easier and less costly than the direct tests. With this study, all of us investigate the predictability in the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS ) and Brazilian tensile strength (ts) (BTS ) of stones from the indentation hardness index (IHI ) obtained using point load apparatus. Forty-six different ordinary types, 14 of which had been igneous, 15 were metamorphic, and 18 were sedimentary were tested in the laboratory. The UCS and BTS values had been correlated with the related IHI ideals and the outcome was statistically analysed. The affect of rock classes on the relationships was also investigated. A strong relationship between UCS and IHI was found for all info. The relationship between BTS and IHI is much less strong since the correlation between UCS and IHI. However , it is in the suitable limits. If the regression studies were repeated for igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, the relationship coefficients had been generally improved. The effects show the UCS and BTS can be estimated from IHI. In addition , the effect of ordinary classes on the relationships among IHI and both UCS and BTS is important. Keywords uniaxial compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, indentation hardness index


Mountain engineers possess commonly used the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and B razil tensile strength (BTS) of mountain for designing surface and underground set ups. Determining these rock strengths is timeconsuming and costly, particularly for the preliminary studies of projects. For this reason, roundabout tests just like Schmidt recurring number and, ultrasonic check are often used for predicting ordinary strength. Since indirect tests require fewer or no test preparation and the testing machines are less advanced, these assessments are very easy to carry out. Additionally , these assessments can usually always be performed in the field. The indentation hardness test is a simple and easy test and can be conducted utilizing a point load test equipment. The test is of particular value when just a limited sum of The Journal of The The southern area of African Start of Exploration and Metallurgy

rock material, e. g. a thin dvd of core or a little lump test, is available1. The UCS and BTS can easily be forecasted from the indentation hardness index (IHI) intended for the initial investigations, if strong predictive correlations will be established. As rock indentation is the simple process in drilling and boring, many researchers2–16 include carried out indentation tests to comprehend the indentation phenomena as well as to develop prediction models intended for drilling or perhaps boring. Kahraman et al. 15 as well investigated the relationships involving the slope of load-indentation curves and the rock properties. They will found great correlations between the slope of load-indentation figure and the ordinary properties. Kahraman and Gunaydin17 investigated the sawability conjecture of carbonate rocks via indentation firmness tests carried out by attaching a dial evaluate to the point load equipment for measuring penetration. They will concluded that the indentation hardness test can be utilised for predicting the sawability of carbonate rocks. Lately, Yagiz18 suggested a new brittleness index and rock brittleness classification depending on type, durability, and denseness of rock and roll together with the outcomes of punch penetration testing. A standard indentation test was recommended by ISRM1 and Equation [1] was advised for the prediction of UCS from IHI [1] where UCS is the uniaxial compressive strength (MPa) and IHI is definitely the indentation firmness index (kN/mm).

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* Exploration Engineering Section, Nigde College or university, Turkey. †Geological Architectural Department, Nigde University, Poultry. ‡ Graduate student School of...

References: 1 ) SZWEDZICKI, Big t. Draft ISRM suggested methods for determining the indentation hardness index of rock supplies. International Journal of Ordinary Mechanics and Mining Savoir & Geomechanics Abstracts, volume. 35, 98. pp. 831–835. 2 . CHEATHAM, J. W. An deductive study of rock transmission by a sole bittooth. 8th Annual Drilling and Blasting Symposium, College or university of Minnesota, 1958. pp. 1–21. several. GNIRK, G. F. and CHEATHAM, J. B. Indentation experiments on dry rocks under pressure. Log of Petroleum Technology, Sept. 2010, 1963. pp. 1031–1039. 4. PAUL, W. and SIKARSKIE, D. D. A preliminary theory of static penetration by a rigid wedge into a frail material. seventh Symposium about Rock Technicians, Pennsylvania State University, 1965. pp. 119–148. 5. CHEATHAM, J. W. and PITTMAN, R. T. Plastic limit analysis placed on a simple drilling trouble. ISRM, Procedures of. first Congress, Lisbon, vol. 2, 1966. pp. 93–97. 6th. HARTMAN, H. L. The potency of indexing in percussion and rotary drilling. International Log of Rock and roll Mechanics and Mining Savoir & Geomechanics Abstracts, volume. 6, 1966. pp. 265–278. 7. GNIRK, P. F. An experimental study of indexed solitary bit-tooth transmission into dried rock in confining stresses of 0 to 7500psi. ISRM, Process of. first Congress, Lisboa, vol. 2, 1966. pp. 121–129. eight. PARISEAU, Watts. G. and FAIRHURST, C. The force-penetration characteristic pertaining to wedge penetration into rock. International Diary of Rock Mechanics and Mining Savoir & Geomechanics Abstracts, volume. 14, 1967. pp. 165–180. 9. MILLER, M. H. and SIKARSKIE, D. M. On the penetration of ordinary by threedimensional indentors. Foreign Journal of Rock Technicians and Exploration Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol. 5, 1968. pp. 375–398. 10. BENJUMEA, R. and SIKARSKIE, D. L. A note on the penetration of any rigid sand iron into a nonisotropic brittle materials. International Record of Rock Mechanics and Mining Savoir & Geomechanics Abstracts, volume. 6, 69. pp. 343–352. 11. MORRIS, R. We. Rock drillability related to a roller cone bit. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Conventional paper No . 2389, 1969. pp. 79–83. 12. LUNDBERG, B. Penetration of rock by conical indentors. International Log of Rock and roll Mechanics and Mining Savoir & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol. 11, mid 1970s. pp. 209-214. 13. PANG, S. H., GOLDSMITH, T., and COVER, M. A force-indentation style for brittle rocks. Ordinary Mechanics and Rock Executive, vol. twenty two, 1989. pp. 127–148. 16. BILGIN, N., ESKIKAYA, H., and DINCER, T. The performance analysis of large size blast gap rotary drills in Turkish Coal Enterprises. 2nd Foreign Symposium in Mine Mechanization and Automation. Rotterdam, Balkema, 1993. pp. 129-135. 15. KAHRAMAN, S i9000., BALCI, C., YAZICI, H., and BILGIN, N. Prediction of the transmission rate of rotary blast hole exercises using a fresh drillability index. International Record of Mountain Mechanics and Mining Savoir & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol. 37, 2150. pp. 729-743. 16. COPUR, H., BILGIN, N., TUNCDEMIR, H., and BALCI, C. A set of indices based on indentation tests to get assessment of rock reducing performance and rock properties. Journal with the South Photography equipment Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 103, number 9, the year 2003. pp. 589–600. 17. KAHRAMAN, S. and GUNAYDIN, Um. Indentation hardness test to estimate the sawability prediction of carbonate rocks. Program of Executive Geology as well as the Environment, volume. 67, 08. pp. 507–511. 18. YAGIZ, S. Analysis of brittleness using rock and roll strength and density with punch penetration test. Tunnelling and Subterranean Space Technology, vol. twenty-four, 2009. pp. 66–74. nineteen. SZWEDZICKI, To. The indentation hardness assessment of ordinary. International Diary of Ordinary Mechanics and Mining Savoir & Geomechanics Abstracts, volume. 35, 1998. pp. 825-829. 20. SHEOREY, P. 3rd there’s r. Empirical Rock and roll Failure Conditions, Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, 1997. 176 pp. And VOLUME 112 MAY 2012

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Number 22—Measured vs . estimated uniaxial compressive durability for Equation [3] implying the relationship between the UCS and IHI for igneous rocks

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Figure 23—Measured versus estimated uniaxial compressive strength for Equation [4] indicating the relation involving the UCS and IHI pertaining to metamorphic stones

metamorphic, and sedimentary dirt, were collected from the field and examined in the clinical. The test results were statistically analysed and the UCS and BTS values had been correlated with the corresponding IHI ideals. The data had been evaluated for a lot of rock types and for rock and roll classes individually. A strong correlation (R2 = 0. 76) between UCS and IHI was located for all info. The relationship between BTS and IHI is also good (R2 = 0. 58), but not since strong because the correlation between UCS and IHI. To see the impact of rock classes around the relations, regression analyses had been repeated pertaining to igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks separately, and it had been shown that the correlation rapport were generally increased. Verification of the extracted models was carried out by the t-test, and F-test plus the scatter diagrams of the observed and estimated values, and it was figured the extracted models had been valid. The study covers the three rock classes igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary, and an extraordinary number of samples were tested. The examples were collected from almost

The Diary of The Southern African Commence of Mining and Metallurgy



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